Anne-Cécile Orgerie logo

Anne-Cécile Orgerie

CNRS Research Scientist

OFFICE: IRISA - F 225, Rennes

Anne-Cécile Orgerie Anne-Cécile Orgerie logo

Cours Green ICT (M2) 2018 - 2019

Lecture 1: Green ICT Introduction (29th Oct.)


  • Definition
  • ICT 4 Green
  • Sustainability
  • Electricity consumption of ICT
  • Green computing history
  • Are we going in the right direction?

Lecture 2: Electricity in the data center (29th Oct.)


  • Basic notions of electricity
  • Measuring power consumption
    • Wattmeters
    • Energy consumption in HPC supercomputers
    • Energy consumption in data centers
    • Energy efficiency metrics
  • Energy consumption of a server
  • Simulating energy

Lecture 3: Cooling data centers (30th Oct.)


  • Data center introduction
  • Operating temperature and hygrometry
  • Cooling approaches
    • Air-based cooling
    • Water-based cooling
    • Hybrid cooling (adiabatic cooling, water-cooled doors)
    • Oil-based cooling
  • Reusing heat

Lecture 4: Energy efficiency in data centers (30th Oct.)


  • Consolidation
  • On/off techniques
  • Energy-aware scheduling: constraint programming, greedy algorithms, meta-heuristics
  • Virtualization & migration

Lecture 5: Exploiting renewable energy (31st Oct.)


  • Renewable energy sources
  • Follow-the-sun, follow-the-wind
  • Opportunistic scheduling
  • Energy storage devices
  • Real scenarios
  • Research tracks: highly distributed architectures, nano data centers, edge clouds

Lecture 6: Energy efficient servers (31st Oct.)


  • CPU: sleep states & DVFS
  • Storage: memory, disks and tapes
  • Dedicated hardware: GPU, FPGA
  • Heterogeneous architectures: the big.LITTLE case
  • Software side: operating system, programming language, compiler optimization, algorithmic improvements
  • Service Level Agreements

Lecture 7: Energy efficiency in wired networks (31st Oct.)


  • Energy models for network devices: routers, switches and ports
  • Hardware optimizations
  • Shutdown approach: switching off, sleeping, proxying, rerouting
  • Slowdown approach: adaptive link rate
  • Low power idle
  • Overall coordination approaches

Lecture 8: Energy efficiency in wireless and optical networks (31st Oct.)


  • Wireless networks
    • Energy models
    • Sensor networks
    • Mobile phones
  • Energy efficiency in optical networks
  • Network virtualization
  • The human factor
  • Concluding remarks


  • Françoise Berthoud, Eric Drezet, Laurent Lefèvre and Anne-Cécile Orgerie, “Sciences du numérique et développement durable : des liens complexes”, Interstices, June 2015,

  • Anne-Cécile Orgerie, Marcos Dias de Assunção and Laurent Lefèvre “A Survey on Techniques for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Large Scale Distributed Systems”, ACM Computing Surveys, volume 46, issue 4, pages 47:1-47:31, April 2014, online version, .

  • Anne-Cécile Orgerie, Laurent Lefèvre, and Jean-Patrick Gelas, “Demystifying Energy Consumption in Grids and Clouds”, Work in Progress in Green Computing (WIPGC) Workshop, in conjunction with the International Green Computing Conference (IGCC), Chicago, USA, pages 335-342, August 2010, online version, .

  • Mark P. Mills, “The Cloud Begins With Coal - Big Data, Big Networks, Big Infrastructure and Big Power”, research report of the Digital Power Group, August 2013,

  • Greenpeace, “How dirty is your data?”, white paper, April 2011, .

  • Jonathan Koomey, “Growth in Data Center Electricity Use 2005 to 2010”, research report, August 2011,

  • CNRS “The Big Data Revolution”, CNRS International Magazine, January 2013,

  • Marcos Dias de Assunção, Jean-Patrick Gelas, Laurent Lefèvre, and Anne-Cécile Orgerie, “The Green Grid’5000: Instrumenting a Grid with Energy Sensors”, Instrumenting the Grid (INGRID), Poznan, Poland, pages 25-42, May 2010, (proceedings published in Remote Instrumentation for eScience and Related Aspects, Springer, volume XI, pages 25-42, 2011, ISBN 978-1-4614-0507-8), online, .

  • Xiaobo Fan, Wolf-Dietrich Weber and Luiz André Barroso, “Power Provisioning for a Warehouse-sized Computer”, ACM International Symposium on Computer Architecture, June 2007, .

  • Richard Talaber, Tom Brey and Larry Lamers, “Using Virtualization to Improve Data Center Efficiency”, white paper, The Green Grid, 2009, .

  • Yunbo Li, Anne-Cécile Orgerie and Jean-Marc Menaud, “Opportunistic Scheduling in Clouds Partially Powered by Green Energy”, GreenCom: IEEE International Conference on Green Computing and Communications, Sydney, Australia, December 2015, .

  • Ricardo Bianchini, Inigo Goiri, Kien Le, Thu D. Nguyen, “Parasol: A Solar-Powered microDatacenter”, EuroSys, 2012, .

  • V. Valancius, N. Laoutaris, L. Massoulie, C. Diot, P. Rodriguez, “Greening the Internet with Nano Data Centers”, International conference on Emerging networking experiments and technologies (CoNEXT), 2009, , slides from Sean Barker.

  • Luiz Andre Barroso, Jimmy Clidaras and Urs Holzle, “The Datacenter as a Computer”, 2nd edition, MarkD..Hiilll Series Editor, Morgan & Claypool, ,

  • David Reine and Mike Kahn, “Disk and Tape Square Off Again - Tape Remains King of the Hill with LTO-4”, Clipper Notes, 2008, ,

  • Raffaele Bolla, Roberto Bruschi, Ken Christensen, Flavio Cucchietti, Franco Davoli, and Suresh Singh, “The Potential Impact of Green Technologies in Next-Generation Wireline Networks - Is There Room for Energy Saving Optimization?”, IEEE Communications Magazine, 2011, .

  • Francisco Blanquicet and Ken Christensen, “PAUSE Power Cycle: A New Backwards Compatible Method to Reduce Energy Use of Ethernet Switches”, Ethernet Alliance white paper, 2008, .

  • Anne-Cécile Orgerie, “An Energy-Efficient Reservation Framework for Large-Scale Distributed Systems”, PhD thesis, 27th September 2011, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon - France, .

  • Adel Noureddine, “Towards a Better Understanding of the Energy Consumption of Software Systems”, PhD thesis, 19th March 2013, Université de Lille 1 - France, .